Что такое культура на английском сочинение

Обновлено: 11.07.2024

A nation is a group of people who share common history and usually a language and usually, but not always, live in the same area. Culture can be described as our everyday life: how we communicate, what makes us happy and sad. It also includes our language, religion, traditions, behavior, way of life – in other words, what we do each day. People that belong to various nations may differ and they always differ from one another.

For example, the Germans are regarded as scientifically-minded and industrious, they're always considered solid, intelligent and mathematical. And, for instance, Israeli are believed to be mercenary, industrious, shrewd, loyal to family, religious.

There is a big amount of examples we can list about national character of different people. Proving the difference of the national stereotypes I want to compare Russian and English nations. There are a lot of features that vary.

The Russians are industrious, tough, brave, progressive and suspicious. They are always considered to be nationalistic, over - patriotic (because of this reason they're good soldiers), we are willing to respect opinion of other people.

Speaking about Englishmen I may note that they're reserved, tradition-loving, courteous, honest, extremely nationalistic and etc. To my mind, they have a specific sense of humor. They say that they can't understand our jokes and anecdotes not only because of the different meanings of the words, but because of their humor is more delicate.

Looking at these features of the Russians and the Englishmen it is not hard to mark out the differences. The Englishmen are reserved, but the Russians are open-hearted and communicative. The Englishmen are tradition-loving and the Russians, to my mind, don't keep their traditions in such a degree.

There is a great majority of factors that influence the nations stereotype and its people's character. People that live in the southern countries have less problems than those who live in the North and because of this they're more cheerful and artistic.

The history also has a great influence on the national character. The peoples in Asia are revengeful because their forefathers often were at war with others. In Africa many countries were colonies of the Great Britain, Holland, Spain and so on and they (Africans) were the slaves and because of this they're still hard-working and industrious.

The National Character exists. It is not a myth, it's a reality. But the National Character doesn't describe the character of every person, it describes the character of people of nation in general. Every person has its own character, but according to the person's belonging to some nation many traits of character are similar and these features may be explained as the national character.

There are many cultures now and they are all different. Some of them are very archaic, others are considered to be rather new. Anyway, each culture is abundant. However, all cultures differ from each other. Some of them seem to be similar, others don’t correspond at all.

Let’s take, for example, Italian and Russian cultures and compare them. On the one hand, they may seem a little bit close to each other as people in both countries tend to be open and careless sometimes. It is a result of the cultural effect and mentality.

On the other hand, Italian culture pays much attention to food and to a sort of rite of eating. They have a lot of unspoken rules which are respected by native people. For instance, the Italians do great coffee and drink it a lot as well. However, they don’t drink all kinds of coffee during the day. Cappuccino, a famous type of coffee beverage, can be drunk only from 8:30 to 10:30.

Moreover, in Italy people tend to eat at the same time. Almost everyone has lunch at 12-13 no matter where they are at that moment. In Russian culture, there are not such limits or strict rules that most people follow. There is hardly a food culture in Russia. People usually eat what they like and when they like.

As for literature and art, Russia and Italy have a significant difference in this sense. The reason for this is that Russian and Italian cultures were generated in different historical circumstances. History has a profound effect on culture and human mentality, that’s why art is always a reflection not only of the author’s identity but also of the history.

Перевод:

На сегодняшний день существует много культур, и все они разные. Некоторые из них очень древние, другие считаются довольно новыми. Как бы то ни было, каждая культура богата. Однако все культуры отличаются друг от друга. Некоторые из них кажутся похожими, другие – вовсе не совпадают.

Возьмем, к примеру, итальянскую и русскую культуры и сравним их. С одной стороны, они могут показаться немного близкими друг другу, так как люди в обеих странах, как правило, открыты и иногда легкомысленны. Это результат культурного воздействия и менталитета.

С другой стороны, итальянская культура уделяет значительное внимание еде и своего рода ритуалу приема пищи. У них есть много негласных правил, которые соблюдаются коренным населением. Например, итальянцы делают великолепный кофе и также много его пьют. Однако они не пьют все виды кофе в течение дня. Капучино, знаменитый вид кофейного напитка, можно пить только с 8:30 до 10:30.

Более того, в Италии люди обычно едят в одно и то же время. Почти все обедают в 12-13, неважно, где они находятся в этот момент. В русской культуре не существует таких ограничений или строгих правил, которым следует большинство людей. В России едва ли есть культура еды. Люди обычно едят то, что им нравится и когда им нравится.

Что касается литературы и искусства, то в этом плане Россия и Италия сильно различаются. Причиной тому является то, что русская и итальянская культуры были сформированы при различных исторических обстоятельствах. История оказывает значительное влияние на культуру и менталитет людей, поэтому искусство – всегда отражение не только личности автора, но также истории.


The Oxford Advancer Learner's Dictionary of Current English by Hornby gives us the following definition of the notion "art". ""Art" is the creation or expression of what is beautiful, especially in visual form. Drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, music, ballet belong to the fine art".

Really when something is extremely beautiful or has great cultural value, we say: "It's art". Art has always been occupation for the few, but has been admired by many. Art reflects feelings and emotions, brings delight and admiration, and makes life pure as it wakens our best hidden qualities. Speaking about arts, we connect this notion with culture. According to the dictionary culture of a community or nation includes all the arts, beliefs and social institutions characteristic of a community or nation. We can speak about either material, or spiritual culture. Art is both.

Russia is a country that can rightfully boast its artistic and cultural traditions, its art galleries attract huge crowds of tourists from all over the world. St. Petersburg is a precious stone in the crown of Russian cities. The Hermitage is famous all over the world for its valuable rare collections of canvases and other art objects covering a span of about seven hundreds years and comprising masterpieces of by Leonardo da Vinci, Titian, Raphael, Rembrandt, and Rubens. The collections illustrate the art of Italy, Spain, Holland, Germany, France, Britain, and Sweden. The West - European Department also includes a fine collection of European Sculpture. People come to admire the collections of tapestry, precious textiles, weapons, ivory, pottery, porcelain and furniture as well.

The Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, the Russian Museum should be mentioned by all means. This picture gallery was founded by a Russian merchant and a connoisseur of art Pavel Tretyakov in the 19th century. He was especially fond of the works of Peredvizhniki or Wanders- the artists who belonged to the Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions such as Kramskoy, Perov, Ghe and other great Russian painters. The Tretyakov Gallery reflects the whole history of Russian Art. It has a rich collection of early Russian painting including famous icon. The world famous "The Trinity" by Andrey Rublev is exhibited in the gallery.

Speaking about art one should not forget about music, especially classic music. Outstanding Russian composers make the whole world admire their music. One can find a man, who does not know Pyotr Ilyich Tchaicovsky, Michail Glinka, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov - the prominent composers of 19th century, and Sergey Rachmaninov, Sergey Prokofiev and Dmitriy Shostakovich.

It was Glinka (1804-1857) who laid the foundation for modern Russian music; his music expressed the temperament of Russian people. His two best known operas "Ivan Susanin" and "Ruslan and Ludmila" were based on Russian folklore and historical legends.

The most famous ballets "Swan Lake", "The Sleeping Beauty", "The Nutcracker" and not less famous operas "The Queen of Spades", "Eugene Onegin" are still excellently staged and performed not only in Russian but in many greatest theatres in the world.

Russia is world famous for its literature. The "golden age" of Russian literature began in the 19th century when such outstanding masters of letters such as Alexander Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev, and Dostoyevsky created their immortal masterpieces.

Alexander Pushkin, the father of Russian Literature was the authors of more than 700 lyrical poems. He wrote also the volumes of dramatic works, short stories, made adaptations of Russian fairy-tales.

Russia is famous for its architecture. The real jewel of architecture is the Moscow Kremlin with its cathedrals, towers and red brick walls. Just outside the Kremlin walls stands St. Basil's Cathedral, one of the world most astonishing buildings with 8 domes of different designs and colors.

St. Petersburg has great number of real masterpieces of architecture of different styles and is definitely worth visiting and being admired.

Russia is rich also in young talents, new Russian culture is forming. It will appear on the basis of the old one, but its essence will be new. We can hear new voices in music and poetry, new canvases of modern artists, great actors and film directors.

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Human culture is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, and literature is an integral part of it. Can we imagine a world without books? No, because so many important functions are performed by the book!

"How good it is to be able to read!" - this line from a children's poem very accurately describes my own attitude to books. Indeed, from the very childhood they lead us through life, opening on their pages extraordinary and unexplored worlds and secrets of the universe, raising important moral problems and offering models of behavior in real life, bringing us to the experience of many generations preserved in books.

One of the most important functions of the book is educational. Every day we make a difficult choice between good and evil. And most clearly the problem of moral choice is reflected in works about the war, because war is the litmus test for human characters. Noteworthy in this respect is the story of Vasil Bykov "Sotnikov". The work is based on the contrast of the images of two heroes.

Fisherman and Sotnikov are partisans captured by the police. They have to choose between death and service to the enemy. Sotnikov preferred death, showing his moral strength. The fisherman succumbed to the temptation. With the thought that he will fight for his life, that he can then escape from the fascists and return to the partisans, Rybak agrees to serve the occupiers. However, there is no way back from this system. From this story we understand: you need to know the consequences of your choice and be responsible for your actions. It is no accident that the story is used as a form of work. Small genres (story, story) became especially popular among Soviet writers in the military and post-war years, since they allowed the most accurate transmission of the main message of the work. Поступаете в 2019 году? Наша команда поможет с экономить Ваше время и нервы: подберем направления и вузы (по Вашим предпочтениям и рекомендациям экспертов);оформим заявления (Вам останется только подписать);подадим заявления в вузы России (онлайн, электронной почтой, курьером);мониторим конкурсные списки (автоматизируем отслеживание и анализ Ваших позиций);подскажем когда и куда подать оригинал (оценим шансы и определим оптимальный вариант).Доверьте рутину профессионалам – подробнее.

The images, recreated in the military and post-war years, have become a model of behavior for many subsequent generations.

Another important role of books is the transfer of the experience of ancestors, the preservation of history and the upbringing of patriotism. F. Abramov said: "The people die when it becomes a population, and the population becomes it when it forgets its history." About the events of the Patriotic War is told in the work of M.Yu. Lermontov "Borodino". The simple vocabulary of the old soldier, on whose behalf the narrative is being conducted, his precise and precise remarks immerse us in the atmosphere of the event. "The French moved like clouds." One comparison, and the reader from the twenty-first century is transferred to the nineteenth. A picture of the battle clearly stands before him. "Bogatyri - not you!" - Our ancestors seem to us like that. We feel pride in the great past of the Fatherland. Is not this a real miracle in the book? Overcoming space and time, we are able to use it to be in the epicenter of any event.

Here we come to the function of a book in which it can not be replaced by any other means. There are people who believe that in the age of modern technology, books can be replaced with films, comics, and books have already lost relevance. But only a book can give such an extraordinary will to man's imagination and imagination! Only the book will allow you to create your own image of the described events, most fully empathize with the feelings of the author, plunging into an imaginary world. Let us recall the poem by SA Esenin, "the poet of a log cabin". The lovely image of the "white" birch, so lovingly described by him, even far from home, will fill the soul with warm memories; thanks to beautiful epithets of comparisons ("prinakryvalsya snow, as silver"), it becomes possible.

In addition, books are necessary for their authors, because their works are an expression of their own feelings, an attempt to share their observations and reflections with others. So, for example, V.Kondratiev became a writer, because he did not find in the books of other authors "his own war", such as he saw it himself, fighting for his Motherland. The story of V. Kondratiev "Sashka" is largely autobiographical, as the author also participated in battles near Rzhev.

The role of books in the life of a person is great, it is difficult to overestimate it. Therefore, we must protect books and develop a love of reading. What will humanity be without books? The world where books are banned, described in the work "Four hundred and fifty-one degrees Fahrenheit" science fiction writer Ray Bradbury. Where books are replaced by television walls, and the availability of knowledge and opinion is equated with crime, the human person can not grow and develop.

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